While Modigliani: A Life by Meryle Secrest was not exactly the biography I was looking for, it is an entertaining, educational read that has much to offer both fans of the artist and general readers.
Several years ago I picked up a copy of Becoming Judy Chicago more or less on a whim to discover one of my favorite reads of 2007. Turns out I enjoy reading critical biographies of artists. (Finding a new sub-genre you enjoy is one benefit of reading outside your box.)
Ms. Secrest’s book on Modigliani is not really a critical biography. My loose definition of a critical biography is a book that looks at an artist’s work in an attempt to illuminate how it came to be, to examine how it works, and to evaluate its overall quality. Of course, much of the artists personal life will be covered but it is not the focus of a critical biography. Ms. Secrest covers all of Modigiliani’s life which is her main focus. She does spend plenty of time discussing how he came to be an artist and explaining both how is art works as well as why it is significant, but the life of the man takes precedence. Hence the title, I suppose.
It’s an interesting life. If you were one of the many people participating in the recent Paris in July
by day-dreaming about being an artist in Paris during the heyday of Monet or Picasso, you will find plenty to enjoy in Modigliani: A Life
. Amedeo Modigliani arrived in Paris from Italy, in the early days of the 20th century. He lived among the major artists of his day, became friends with Pablo Picasso, was the center of attention in avant-garde social sets, and lived la vie Boheme on nothing a year. He struggled as a sculptor for years until he found his signature style as a painter. While he never became rich or famous during his lifetime, he did live to enjoy some success before dying at the age of 36 from tubercular meningitis. In Modigliani: A Life
you’ll find a rich story of struggles with art, family, women, and day to day existence in Paris of the early 20th century, when the art scene left Montmarte for cheaper quarters in Montparnasse.
Ms. Secrest attempts to correct several aspects of Modigliani’s reputation, namely that he helped bring about his own early death through excessive drink and the use of narcotics. She builds a strong case. What struck me most is the idea that he drank as a means to control the symptoms of tuberculosis which he kept secret until just before his death. His fear that he would have been ostracized by just about everyone if his condition became known was probably correct.
If, like me, you’re looking for information about his paintings, you’ll find it towards the end of Ms. Secrest’s book. Modigliani was at the height of his skill during the final year of his life. He had been painting portraits of friends for several years, he worked with anyone who would sit for him without pay because he had no money to hire models, but these did not sell. In Modigliani’s day, if the sitter didn’t buy the portrait, no one did. Once he moved on to painting nudes, his work began to sell, and he painted what many argue are his best works.
Like Picasso and many other artists living in Paris at the time, Modigliani was heavily and clearly influenced by the African masks which were beginning to appear on the art market in Europe. Ms. Secrest writes about the mask like faces in Modigliani’s work:
“The more he (Modigliani) paints individuals the more their particular features fade into the background, and the more faces seem encased in a smooth shell as hard as a carapace. As Pierre Daix observed, the comparison between Picasso’s revised portrait of Gertude Stein and Modigliani’s mature style is apt. Modigliani, however, never took his experiments with features further than that. Unlike Picasso, who has already turned his women’s faces into beak-like appendages by the time he is working on Les Demoiselles d’Avignon, Modigliani’s noses stay where they were put, the mouths fall beneath them, there are no double profiles or eyes placed in the middle of foreheads. Picasso’s interest is schematic, to see how far he can rearrange facial features and still have them be recognizable. Modigliani’s interest is otherwise. He is trying to simplify and reduce to the irreducible minimum the essence of a personality without actually losing it altogether. The masks of the commedia dell’arte wore, as Pierre Louis wrote in The Italian Comedy, “an indefinable expression as full of possibilities as of impossibilities, like the Mona Lisa, which every generation interprets differently.” Modigliani’s self-imposed challenge, to see how far he could venture into abstraction without ending in either anonymity or caricature, must be one of the most difficult any artist since the Renaissance has attempted.”
So why is Modigliani not held in the high esteem less able painters like Picasso are or recognized alongside the great painters of his generation like Matisse? Ms. Secrest blames three major culprits. The first is the author’s own personal reputation. Modigliani’s private life was one of near complete chaos which gave him a lasting bad reputation deserved or not. Second, because his work is so easy to fake and because he did not keep accurate records of the work he did, he became one of the most frequently counterfeited artists of the 20th century. For a long time, there was really no way to be sure you were buying a Modigliani. Finally, his artwork itself worked against a lasting reputation. Because Modigliani worked to create his own signature style, he was not included in the early narrative of 20th century art. He is neither a cubist nor an abstract painter nor does he fit within any other school of art. His work stands outside the rest and was often left out of the early histories of 20th century art as a result.
Fans of Modigliani, like myself, can hope that as more and more people begin to see how inferior Picasso’s work is to that of Matisse, that other excellent painters like Modigliani will be given their due. Ms. Secrest’s book is a step in the right direction.
Since I first ran this review on my old blog, Ready When You Are, C.B., I remain a fan of Modigliani, but I’ve become a devote of Henri Matisse. Fortunately, we don’t have to pick one or the other, we can enjoy them all.